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Critical Theory Explained
Critical Theorist: Michael Apple
Critical Theorist: Paolo Freire
Critical Theorist: Henry Giroux
Critical Theorist: Peter McLaren
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Additional Reading

Critical Theory-General

Appignanesi, R., & Garratt, C. (1995). Introducing Postmodernism. New York: Totem Books.

Dandaneau, S. P., & Falcone, M. (1998). A Wrong Life: Studies in Lifeworld-Grounded Critical Theory. Stamford: Jai Press Inc.

Foucault, M. (1972). The Archaeology of Knowledge and the Discourse on Language. New York: Pantheon Books.


Michael Apple

Apple, M. W. (1992). Computers in Schools: Salvation or Social Disaster? Education Digest, 57(6), 47-52.

Apple, M.W. (1982)Cultural and Economic Reproduction in Education: Essays on Class, Ideology, and the State, London

Apple, M. W. (1996). Cultural Politics and Education. New York: Teachers College Press.

Apple, M.W. (1998)The Curriculum: Problems, Politics, and Possibilities, Albany

Apple, M.W. (1995)Democratic Schools, Alexandria, Va.

Apple, M.W. (1982) Education and Power, Boston

Apple, M.W. (1974 Educational Evaluation: Analysis and Responsibility, Berkeley

Apple, M.W. (1979)Ideology and Curriculum, London

Apple, M.W. (1983) Ideology and Practice in Schooling, Philadelphia

Apple, M. W. (1998). Knowledge, Pedagogy, and the Conservative Alliance. Studies in Literary Imagination, 31(1), 5-23.

Apple, M. W. (1993). Official Knowledge. New York: Routledge.

Apple, M.W. (1993)Official Knowledge: Democratic Education in a Conservative Age, New York

Apple, M. W. (1993). The Politics of Official Knowledge: Does a National Curriculum Make Sense? Teachers College Record, 95(2), 222-241.

Apple, M. W., & Christian-Smith, L. K. (Eds.). (1991). The Politics of the Textbook. New York: Routledge.

Apple, M.W. (1981) Reproduction, Contestation and Curriculum, New Directions in Education: Critical Perspectives, Buffalo

Apple, M. W. (1990). Restoring the Voice of Curriculum Specialists. Education Digest, 56(2), 48-52.

Apple, M.W. (1975)Schooling and the Rights of Children, Berkeley

Apple, M. W. (1988). Social Crisis and Curriculum Accords. Educational Theory, 38(2), 191-201.

Apple, M.W. (1986) Teachers and Texts: a Political Economy of Class and gender Relations in Education, New York,


Paulo Freire

Escobar, M., Fernandez, A. L., Guevara-Niebla, G., & Freire, P. (1994). Paulo Freire on Higher Education. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Friere, P. & Macedo, D. (Fall, 1995) ""A Dialogue: Culture, Language, and Race"Harvard Educational Review. 65-3.

Friere, P. (1973) Education for Critical Consciousness. New York: Seabury Press.

Freire, P. & Faundez, A. (1989)Learning to Question: A Pedagogy of Liberation. New York: Continuum.

Freire, P. (1996). Letters to Christina: Reflections on My Life and Work. New York: Rutledge.

Friere, P. & Macedo, D. (1987) Literacy: Reading the Word and the World. South Hadley, Mass: Bergin & Garvey.

Freire, P. (1993). Pedagogy of the City. New York: Continuum.

Friere, P. (1978) Pedagogy in Process: The Letters to Guinea-Bissau. New York: Seabury Press.

Friere, P. (1981) The People Speak Their Word: Learning to Read and Write in Sao Tome and Principe." Loretta Slover, trans.EHarvard Educational Review, vol. 51. New York: Seabury Press.

Friere, P. (1985) The Politics of Edjucation: Culture, Power, and Liberation. South Hadley, Mass: Bergin & Garvey.

"Reading the World and Reading the Word: An Interview with Paulo Freire,"(1985). Language Arts, 62.


Henry Giroux

Giroux, H. A. (1994). Disturbing Pleasures: Learning Popular Culture. New York: Routledge.

Giroux, H. A. (1996). Fugitive Cultures: Race, Violence, and Youth. New York: Routledge.

Giroux, H. A., & Shannon, P. (Eds.). (1997). Education and Cultural Studies: Toward a Performative Practice. New York: Routledge.


Peter McLaren

Lankshear, C., & McLaren, P. L. (Eds.). (1993). Critical Literacy: Politics, Praxis, and the Postmodern. Albany: State University of New York Press.

McLaren, P. (1989). Life in Schools: An Introduction to Critical Pedagogy in the Foundations of Education. New York: Longman.


Critical Theory|Michael Apple|Paulo Freire|Henry Giroux|Peter McLaren

      Reproduction, Contestation & Curriculum Power/Knowledge/Pedagogy    
Updated: 11/26/99
Laurie Williams