Pedagogy of Hope
Twenty years after writing Pedagogy of the
Oppressed, Paulo Freire looked back and reflected on his writing
and work. How had he come to the realizations he wrote about in
Pedagogy of the Oppressed? What occurred because of it?
Where was he going now?
This reliving of Pedagogy of the Oppressed
became Pedagogy of Hope: Reliving Pedagogy of the Oppressed.
is "Pedagogy of Hope"?
In describing the purpose of the book, Freire
It (was) written in rage and love, without which there is
no hope. It is meant as a defense of tolerance--not to be
confused with connivance--and radicalness. It is meant as
a criticism of sectarianism. It attempts to explain and defend
progressive postmodernity and it ... reject(s) conservative,
neoliberal postmodernity (Freire, 1998a, p.
He described hope as an ontological need that
should be anchored in practice in order to become historical
concreteness. Without hope, we are hopeless and cannot begin
the struggle to change.
To attempt to do without hope, which is based on the need
for truth as an ethical quality of the struggle, is tantamount
to denying that struggle one of its mainstays (p.8
Hope must be rooted in practice, in the struggle.
If not, if there is inaction, you get hopelessness and despair.
- What does this mean for educators?
As Freire lays out the his story, he also discusses
what he sees the role of the progressive educator to be. He
does this with one caution, that educators should
not turn Freirian pedagogy into Freirian methodology.
His work is meant to be a framework for others, and as
such, he asks that educators reinvent Freire within their
context, within the context of the learners.
The tasks for progressive educators in Freirian
- "...to unveil opportunities for hope, regardless of
the obstacles" (p. 9).
- to accept the political and directive nature of education.
- to express respect for differences in ideas and positions.
- to respect the educands, never manipulating them.
- to be tolerant, open, forthright, and critical, teaching
is not simply the "transmission of knowledge concerning
the object or concerning the topic"(p.
- to teach so that educands can learn to learn "...the
reason-for, the "why" of the object or the content."
- to challenge educands with a regard to their certitudes
so that they seek convincing arguments in defense of the why.
- to respect popular knowledge, cultural content...this is
the point of "departure for the knowledge (that educands)
create of the world.
- to understand that the "perception of the why of the
facts...lead us to transcend the narrow horizons of the
neighborhood or even the immediate geographical area,
to gain (the) global view of reality..."(pp.87)
Freire contended that the basic importance
of education lays in the "act of cognition not only of
the content, but of the why of economic, social, political,
ideological, and historical facts...under which we find ourselves