Rage and Hope Home Page
Site Contents
Critical Theory Explained
Critical Theorist: Michael Apple
Critical Theorist: Paolo Freire
Critical Theorist: Henry Giroux
Critical Theorist: Peter McLaren
About Us: Information About Site Developers
Systems of Human Inquiry Web Project Page
Rage and Hope
Michael Apple


Who is to blame?

The distribution of knowledge and the filtering of knowledge have been an important issue for Dr. Apple. To understand the complete complex arena, it is necessary to visit the "contradictory roles schools play." "The processing  of knowledge includes more than its differential distribution to different kinds of people, but also its production and ultimate accumulation by those in power."

In Dr. Applešs search for a deeper understanding of how knowledge is legitimized by the people responsible for educating our youth, he offers the following comments.

"Teachers, for example, blamed themselves as individuals (or their pupils) for the failures of students, just as I did. It more and more, however, seemed to me not to be a question of the amount of effort teachers and curriculum workers, put in. Indeed, few groups of people work harder and in more uncertain, difficult, and complex circumstances than teachers and administrators. Rather, it became clearer that the institution itself and the connections it had to other powerful social agencies generated the dominant rules and practices of educators' lives. Blaming teachers, castigating individuals, was less than helpful."

  Critical Theorists: Michael Apple Values & Politics Denunciation Reproduction, Contestation & Curriculum Power/Knowledge/Pedagogy  

    Learning in Schools Cultural Capital & Official Knowledge An Interview with Michael Apple Other Sites Online  
Updated: 11/24/99
Laurie Williams