Who is to blame?
The distribution of knowledge and the filtering
of knowledge have been an important issue for Dr. Apple. To understand
the complete complex arena, it is necessary to visit the "contradictory
roles schools play." "The processing of knowledge
includes more than its differential distribution to different
kinds of people, but also its production and ultimate accumulation
by those in power."
In Dr. Applešs search for a deeper understanding
of how knowledge is legitimized by the people responsible for
educating our youth, he offers the following comments.
"Teachers, for example, blamed themselves as
individuals (or their pupils) for the failures of students, just
as I did. It more and more, however, seemed to me not to be a
question of the amount of effort teachers and curriculum workers,
put in. Indeed, few groups of people work harder and in more uncertain,
difficult, and complex circumstances than teachers and administrators.
Rather, it became clearer that the institution itself and the
connections it had to other powerful social agencies generated
the dominant rules and practices of educators' lives. Blaming
teachers, castigating individuals, was less than helpful."